How I Teach

Fresh from the Denver suburbs, this new teacher visited a poor student in a rural area and learned a valuable lesson

How do teachers captivate their students? Here, in a feature we call How I Teach, we ask great educators how they approach their jobs. You can see other pieces in this series here.

During her first year teaching, Laura Keathley learned a lesson she has never forgotten.

Keathley, who’d grown up in suburban Denver, was driving to visit a student at home in a rural area of New Mexico. Knowing the child’s family was poor and the home had no electricity or running water, she feared the girl faced a bleak future.

She couldn’t have been more wrong.

Keathley, now a special education teacher at Avery-Parsons Elementary School in the Buena Vista School District, talked to Chalkbeat about what she learned during the visit, why teaching isn’t brain surgery and where silly cat videos fit into the day.

She is one of 20 educators selected for the state’s new Commissioner’s Teacher Cabinet. The group provides input to officials at the Colorado Department of Education on the impact of education policies in the classroom.

Laura Keathley
Laura Keathley

This interview has been condensed and lightly edited.

Why did you become a teacher?
Originally I started out to be an emergency medical technician then decided to major in social work. One day, I was talking to a former high school teacher when he suggested I come and volunteer at the school helping with his special needs physical education class. I had no background with special needs, but I was looking for a new adventure and this seemed like fun. From the moment I started working with those wonderful kids, I was hooked! My favorite part of teaching is seeing that light go on and a student mastering a new skill. It is so exciting to me whether the accomplishment is big or small.

What does your classroom look like?
Grand Central Station! Keathley’s Korner – a name I created to remove the stigma of special education — has one teacher, three paraprofessionals and 15 students in six grade levels … so it is a busy place. It is open and bright with lots of color. The walls are covered with visual supports designed to make our students more independent. We have four different group tables spread throughout the room. Each area is defined by area rugs or furniture. There is also a mini kitchen with a sink and counters on one side of the room.

The main feature of my classroom is the 411 wall. This is our information center. It tells everyone where they need to go, who is in the room that day, and any special announcements. Students can independently use the board to find their daily activities. My class is always busy and students come and go all day long.

Fill in the blank. I couldn’t teach without my _________. Why?
I couldn’t teach without my paraprofessionals. The three ladies that I work with are very talented. My paraprofessionals create and follow their own lesson plans, freeing me up to work with the students and focus on teaching. They are well-versed in the field and have received a great deal of training. I depend on them not only to deliver instruction, but to contribute thoughts and ideas about working with the students. My paraprofessionals have become a resource to the entire school. The joke in our classroom is that we are four parts of the same brain.

In December of 2014, our classroom was awarded model status by the Colorado Department of Education Colorado Model Autism Site Project, or CoMASP. We were the seventh classroom in the state and the second rural school to receive the honor by meeting at least 80 percent of the state’s quality indicators. We achieved this in part because of my paraprofessionals’ willingness to go above and beyond their job to make a difference. I am thankful every day that I work with these wonderful ladies. Thank you Sarah, Lesa and Stephanie!

What is one of your favorite lessons to teach? How did you come up with the idea?
A few years ago I began teaching all the students in our school about the basics of autism and special needs and how to make friends with those students. I wanted something that was easy to adapt to every grade level and that would connect with the students and teachers.

I contacted one of my former students and he created a PowerPoint presentation for me called, “10 Things You Should Know About Having Autism.” His slideshow describes his challenges and feelings about having autism and how to respond to that. Coming from his personal perspective, it is a powerful teaching tool. Paired with the how-to-make-friends presentation from AutismSpeaks.org, it has spawned some amazing conversation in classes. I believe that it has created a much more inclusive and accepting environment throughout our school. I love being able to share how amazing my students are with everyone in the school.

How do you respond when a student doesn’t understand your lesson?
I believe in the saying, “If a child cannot learn the way I teach, then let me teach him the way he can learn.” It is my responsibility to find a way to get that information to my student in a way they can best learn and understand. Sometimes I reteach a lesson several different ways looking for a way to connect with the student. Patience and a willingness to keep trying are important.

How do you get your class’s attention if students are talking or off task?
My class runs in small groups, so quiet reminders to focus on their work or keep trying are usually all it takes. In group settings, I use a system that we created in my classroom called the Cup Ups. There is a red, green and yellow cup. When the red cup is up, everyone is listening and no questions can be asked. When the yellow cup is up, everyone is listening and if you have a question, you can raise your hand and wait to be called on. When the green cup is up, everyone can talk and discuss quietly and ask questions without raising their hands, as long as they are respectful. I like the visual cue that every child understands.

How do you get to know your students and build relationships with them? What questions do you ask or what actions do you take?
I love to get to know my students one-on-one away from an academic setting. I often have my students for multiple years, so I have the luxury of really digging into their lives and finding what motivates them. I love to find a common passion – one student and I watch silly cat videos on YouTube – and then use that to create a relationship. Humor and silliness also go a long way towards building a bridge.

I also work hard to create a safe space for my students to come to when they need support. I use genuine praise and honest feedback when I work with them. I want them to feel that I am behind them all the way. I ask them, “Do you trust me? I need you to know that I am going to give you things that are hard, but never impossible. If you try and use my help we can make this happen. I am always here for you!” I am their biggest cheerleader and advocate.

Tell us about a memorable time — good or bad — when contact with a student’s family changed your perspective or approach.
My first year of teaching was in Gallup, New Mexico. I was a brand-new teacher fresh from the suburbs of Denver who took the job sight unseen. The first week I was there, I made a home visit to a family that had a special needs child they wanted to enroll in my class. My principal warned me that the family lived far from town, in a small hogan (Navajo traditional house) with dirt floors, no running water, and no electricity. The family had very little money. In my mind, this environment immediately connected to a poor environment for the child and certain deprivation that would only hold this child back in her future. Pity was an overwhelming emotion.

On our way to the house, I was mentally reviewing all the many things I was going to have to do for this poor child. When we got to the house, a large extended family met us. Aunts, uncles, grandparents and parents sat down with us to discuss the child’s needs. Throughout the bilingual conversation, I discovered that this child lived a rich and culture-filled life. Herding sheep, speaking two languages, learning Navajo tradition, learning letters and numbers from every family member in an authentic environment, and the list goes on.

I began to realize that this child was going to be successful because of the incredible home support and love she experienced every day. At that moment, I discovered how dangerous making assumptions about a student based on what you think you know can be for a child. Pity can blind you to what’s right in front of you and make you ineffective. In the 29 years since that lesson, I have never made that mistake again.

What are you reading for enjoyment?
I am reading the Dark Tower series by Stephen King.

What’s the best advice you ever received?
One of my very favorite veteran teachers once told me, “It’s teaching, not brain surgery. No one is going to die if you don’t get through your lesson. Breathe, relax and enjoy the kids. You can teach a lesson again tomorrow, but you might not get a second chance to connect with a kid.” Yep – words to live by!

How I Teach

Why this Memphis history teacher seeks to create a ‘calming slice of Africa’ in his classroom

PHOTO: Caroline Bauman
Torian Black, 30, teaches African-American history at Freedom Preparatory Academy in Memphis.

How do teachers captivate their students? Here, in a feature we call How I Teach, we ask great educators how they approach their jobs. You can see other pieces in this series here.

Torian Black felt excluded as he grew up in Memphis City Schools, and he hopes he can help his students of color feel better about themselves and their school than he did.

Black, 30, teaches African-American history at Freedom Preparatory Academy in Memphis, a high school run by one of  Memphis’ highest performing charter organizations. He grew up in Memphis City Schools and graduated from White Station High School, but Black says he doesn’t look back on that time fondly.

“My experience as an African-American male student being educated at White Station High School was one filled with prejudice, uneasiness, and an experience in which I had to seek refuge,” Black said.

“It was an experience in which I was always ‘the other’ in the classroom and was never intentionally brought into an inclusive space,” he said.

Black wants to give his students a much different experience than he had in high school. The majority of students at Freedom Prep are students of color.

We spoke with Black about how he incorporates African history into his classroom — complete with instruments and tapestries — and why the Black Power movement is his favorite lesson to teach. (This Q&A has been edited and condensed for clarity.)

Why did you become a teacher?

My experience at Howard University, a historically black university, taught me who I was and what I should have been taught at a much younger age. It was an experience in finding my own identity through education. I wanted to be sure students who looked like me would not only receive an experience free of the ailments I experienced growing up, but would also receive a transformational experience that would positively impact their lives for generations.

What does your classroom look like?

I sought to create a calming slice of Africa in my classroom. There are African instruments, plants, and tapestries of African fabrics adorning my room.

PHOTO: Caroline Bauman
Black incorporates African instruments, plants, and tapestries into his classroom.

What is one of your favorite lessons to teach? How did you come up with the idea?

There is a unit I teach that solely focuses on the Black Power movement. I walk students through where the Black Panther symbol came from: the Lowndes County Freedom Organization in Mississippi, which fought for black political rights in 1966. We discuss the rise of the Black Panther party in California in the 1960s and how it connects to the civil rights movement.

This is definitely the most anticipated unit among students. All too often, we are looked at as second-class citizens. The perspective that matters most in life is how we see ourselves.

A survey I conducted at the beginning of the year revealed that our students still think of themselves as inferior in many ways. The “doll test” conducted by psychologists Kenneth and Mamie Clark identified this feeling in African-American children more than 50 years ago. Unfortunately, not much has changed today in the way black and brown children think. When students learn and see people like them serving as examples of strength and self-determination, they see what they can do themselves.

How do you get your class’ attention if students are talking or off task?

I sought to recreate aspects of Africa in my classroom. So, I often use music from African instruments in a call-and-response fashion to get their attention. Djembes, shekeres, and thumb pianos are some of the instruments I use.

How do you get to know your students and build relationships with them? What questions do you ask or what actions do you take?

PHOTO: Caroline Bauman
Black started teaching at Freedom Prep five years ago.

Every interaction with a student is an opportunity to build a stronger relationship. First, it’s important to establish a strong warm, strict classroom culture that is positive, urgent and requires critical thought. It’s important that students see who we are as people. I include stories of my childhood, pictures of my family, and examples of the mistakes I have made throughout life in my lessons.

For teachers, building relationships with a group of students comes first.  Then, all downtime activities — transitions, lunchtime, or after school— are perfect times to build stronger individual relationships by just asking questions you would ask of anyone you would genuinely like to connect with,  know, and understand.

Tell us about a memorable time — good or bad — when contact with a student’s family changed your perspective or approach.

Recently, a parent of a student I teach informed me that they chose Freedom Prep high school because of me. She said she heard of my reputation for infusing love and joy in my lessons, she heard of my desire and commitment for students to love themselves and their identity, and she trusted my ability to grow her child academically. This parent already was looking into Freedom Prep, but once she heard of what I brought to the table, that’s when she made her decision. To entrust another person to educate your child is a weight as heavy as the mountains because the educator has a strong hand in shaping each child’s path to their destiny. To know that I had that impact on even one parent meant that my work, the long hours, and the stress are worth it and I am walking in my purpose.

What are you reading for enjoyment?

“Black Panther: A Nation Under Our Feet” by Ta-Nehisi Coates as well as “The Holy Koran of the Moorish Science Temple of America.”

How I Teach

This Colorado teacher admitted she didn’t know all the answers – and students responded

PHOTO: Hero Images | Getty Images
Girl using laptop in classroom.

Here, in a feature we call How I Teach, we ask educators who’ve been recognized for their work how they approach their jobs. You can see other pieces in this series here.

When a new student arrived in her class at Cherry Creek High School, computer science teacher Jocelyn Nguyen-Reed tried hard to make her feel welcome and supported. But as the year wore on, the girl withdrew and Nguyen-Reed began to wonder if her overtures were making any difference.

That spring, she discovered what a big impression her efforts had made when the student’s father called to ask for advice on how to help his daughter. The teen, he said, believed Nguyen-Reed could help her with anything.

Nguyen-Reed talked to Chalkbeat about what she realized after that phone call, how she discovered her passion for teaching, and why she tells students she doesn’t know all the answers.

Nguyen-Reed is one of 20 educators who were selected to serve on the state Commissioner’s Teacher Cabinet. The group provides input to officials at the Colorado Department of Education.

This interview has been condensed and lightly edited.

Why did you become a teacher?

The summer before my junior year in college, after a having tough year and burning out in my pre-med track, I took a summer position as a camp counselor in a two-week STEM program for high school students. As a part of the job, I was the teaching assistant for a chemistry class. I was so nervous while I was setting up the first lab. I kept running all the different scenarios in my head trying to make sure it wouldn’t be a complete disaster! To my delight, the first lab was a great success and the “high” I felt following the first day on the job made me I realize how passionate I was about teaching and education. The camp was the first time in a long time that I had been so excited to get up in the morning to do something.

What was your biggest misconception that you initially brought to teaching?
I think the biggest misconception was that I had to be the expert at everything all the time. My first year teaching, I had been assigned to teach two levels of computer science when I had very limited computer science background. I prepared as much as I could over the summer, but was terrified coming into the year because I knew students would ask me questions I wouldn’t be able to answer.

I decided to be upfront with them and invite them to ask questions, but to allow me room to find out what they needed when I did know the answers. It turned out they appreciated this approach more than I expected. The unexpected perk was that students were more empowered to try to figure out the answers and we often worked as a team to get to the bottom of whatever problems they encountered. It taught me the importance of authenticity in teaching and that modeling the learning process is extremely valuable..

What is one of your favorite lessons to teach? How did you come up with the idea?
One of the more fun lessons I teach is sorting algorithms in my AP Computer Science course. An algorithm in computer science is simply a step-by-step process for solving a problem. In our everyday life, sorting is one that comes up all the time — sorting your phone contacts by name or sorting your search results by relevance. In this lesson, we explore ways to sort data quickly and efficiently.

I usually start with a silly story that then poses the problem of sorting some set of papers or punch cards. I might talk about how programmers once programmed on punch cards, so tasks that are simple to code today took many, many punch cards to code in the past. “Imagine you had a stack of 1,000 punch cards,” I might say to my students. “But then you trip on the steps, and they are everywhere! … Now what?” Students start by brainstorming their own ideas for how to sort them. I then focus on just a few and use students in my class as “lists to sort” to demonstrate each one. Students usually enjoy the interactivity of the lesson.

How do you respond when a student doesn’t understand your lesson?
I will usually try to tackle this in two ways: I’ll use his or her peers to help or arrange personal one-on-one help. My students usually have a table partner with whom they have ample opportunities to work. I usually remind them that no matter the task, their jobs are two-fold. First, make sure they understand the concepts. If not, then their job is to ask questions (of their peers or me). Second, make sure their partners understand the concepts. If they don’t, their job is to explain the concepts to them. If a student is still struggling, I’ll reach out and try to make a plan/time with them to make sure they get caught up.

How do you get to know your students and build relationships with them? What questions do you ask or what actions do you take?
At the start of the year, I ask students about their strengths, weaknesses, needs, interests, and the things about which they are excited or worried. During the year, I periodically ask them to write to me how they are, what’s going well, what’s not going well, and what they need from me. I always enjoy getting to read what they write and responding to each one. It is especially nice to hear from those who are more shy or quiet in class. Otherwise, I just try to meet students with a smile and ask them about what’s happening in their lives each day, or follow up about something they told me some other time.

Tell us about a memorable time — good or bad — when contact with a student’s family changed your perspective or approach.
In my first couple years teaching, I felt the need to be everything to everyone all the time, and I worked countless hours trying to make my lessons as engaging as possible. I had a student who was new to the community at the start of the year, and I made extra effort to make her comfortable. As the year continued, I noticed that she started to change -— her image, her attitude, etc. I had a good relationship with her, but she seemed to withdraw a little bit and I wasn’t really sure how to help her. I gathered that her home life was stressful, so I continued to be kind to her and let her know I was there for her.

I received a surprise phone call that spring that really changed my perspective on the effort I was putting into my job everyday. It was her dad asking me for input on how to help his daughter. “She seems to believe that you can help her with just about anything,” he said in his voicemail. From that moment on, I realized that my efforts to care for my students will never be wasted, and no matter how tired or overwhelmed I feel, care and kindness will always be worth it.

What are you reading for enjoyment?
Currently, I’m working my way through “The Teacher Wars: A History of America’s Most Embattled Profession” by Dana Goldstein. I am only about 10 pages in, but I’m enjoying it so far!

What’s the best advice you ever received?
Take everything one step at a time. I have a tendency to take on a lot at once. I have high expectations for myself, so I can overwhelm myself easily. It is a nice reminder that not everything has to get done NOW. Some of it can wait, and even just doing a little at a time can go a long way.