Fall into the gap

Coalition: Colorado making progress to close racial gaps in health, education but more work remains

PHOTO: Judy DeHaas/The Denver Post
Dayanna Brown, 9, a student at Denver's Stedman Elementary, tries to focus on a mock state exam in 2010.

Black and Latino students in Colorado still lag behind their white peers in academic performance and healthiness, but the gaps separating the different groups have shrunk in the last three years, according to a new report.

The 2017 Race for Results report from the Annie E. Casey Foundation highlights state-level disparities between different racial and ethnic groups — white, black, Latino, Native American and Asian/Pacific Islander — based on a variety of factors. Those measures include the number of children with a normal birth weight, how many fourth graders are reading proficiently, graduation rates and household incomes.

A coalition of child advocacy, social justice and education groups used the report’s release to call on state lawmakers to do more to help level the playing field for all Colorado students.

“In national rankings of child well-being, Colorado often shows up as average,” Kelly Causey, president and CEO of the Colorado Children’s Campaign, said in a statement. “But our state’s average ranking hides the wide disparities we see in child well-being when we look at outcomes by race and ethnicity.”

In the study, each racial or ethnic group receives a composite score from 1 — the lowest score — to 1,000.

Here are the scores for Colorado’s students received in 2014 compared to 2017.

Because some of the data reporting has changed during the last three years, such as with graduation rates, the report cautions comparing scores year to year. However, comparing the change in the size of the gaps between groups is appropriate.

The gaps measured by the new report follow a similar pattern in the state’s annual testing data. Earlier this fall Chalkbeat looked at gap in achievement data by race, class, special education needs and whether is learning English as a second language.

Local officials said the gaps narrowed in Colorado in part because fewer black children are living in poverty, low teen birth rates, and conditions improved for young women of all racial and ethnic groups, but they improved faster for young women of color.

The report, the second of its kind, put special emphasis on children from immigrant families. Those children often face additional barriers such as separation from parents. The report’s authors are recommending comprehensive immigration reform that keeps immigrant families together, expanded early childhood programs in communities with high numbers of immigrant families and more economic opportunities for parents.

In Colorado, the Children’s Campaign and its partners will ask state lawmakers during the 2018 legislative session to renew the state’s child care contribution tax credits credit, remove barriers to school lunches and reduced-price lunch shaming, rethink how the state generates revenue and allocates tax dollars to schools.

Lawmakers will also be asked to reconsider a bill that would reform the state’s suspensions and expulsion laws for the state’s youngest students.

“While it’s promising to see those gaps are closing, Colorado has more work to do to remove barriers for children of color and kids living in immigrant families,” Causey said, “which ultimately will benefit all of Colorado’s children.”

Poverty in America

Woman’s tragic death prompts reflection. Could vacant Memphis schools help in the fight against homelessness?

PHOTO: Laura Faith Kebede
Graves Elementary School in South Memphis has been boarded up since its closure in 2014. It's one of 10 vacant school buildings in the city.

The death of a Memphis woman sleeping on a bench across from City Hall in frigid temperatures unleashed a furor of frustration this week across social media.

As Memphians speculated how someone could freeze to death in such a public place, some pointed to limited public transportation, one of the nation’s highest poverty rates, and entry fees to homeless shelters. The discussion yielded one intriguing suggestion:

About 860 Memphis students were considered homeless in 2016, meaning their families either were on the streets, living in cars or motels, or doubling up with friends and relatives.

At the same time, Shelby County Schools has an adequate supply of buildings. The district had 10 vacant structures last fall after shuttering more than 20 schools since 2012, with more closures expected in the next few years.

But what would need to happen for schools to become a tool against homelessness? Some cities already have already begun to tap that inventory.

Shelby County Schools has been eager to get out of the real estate business, though it’s not exactly giving away its aging buildings. In 2016, Superintendent Dorsey Hopson said the school system should “repurpose some of these buildings and … anchor some of these communities and rebuild and refurbish these communities instead of tearing stuff down.” The conversation was part of Memphis 3.0, the city’s first strategic plan since 1981 to guide growth for years to come.

District policy allows for “adaptive reuse” to lease vacant buildings for community development including affordable housing, community centers, libraries, community gardens, or businesses. A change requires a community needs assessment and input from neighborhood leaders and organizations before the school board can vote on a recommendation.

But proposals to transform schools into housing haven’t emerged in Memphis.

The Memphis Housing Authority, which oversees federal dollars for housing development, has a two-year exclusive right to purchase two former schools near downtown. But talk has focused on using that space for an early childhood center, not housing, according to High Ground News.

Under state law, districts must give charter schools, which are privately managed but publicly funded, serious consideration to take over a closed building.

That has happened for some Memphis schools, but high maintenance costs for the old buildings are a major deterrent. They also present a significant challenge for any entity looking to convert a structure into a homeless shelter or affordable housing.

Of the district’s 10 empty school buildings, most have a relatively low “facility condition index,” or FCI rate, which measures the maintenance and repair costs against the current replacement cost. The higher the number, the less cost-effective.


*as of October 2017

The idea to turn vacant school buildings into livable space is not new. Across the nation, some communities have found workable solutions to address the excess real estate.

In Philadelphia, a nonprofit organization transformed an empty four-story elementary school that was frequented by trespassers and drug users into housing for 37 homeless veterans and low-income seniors. The $14 million project, led by Help USA, took advantage of federal dollars set aside to house homeless veterans.

Last summer, leaders in Daytona Beach, Florida, pitched in $3.5 million in public funds to help a local nonprofit convert an elementary school into a homeless shelter. Despite pushback from neighborhood residents, the plan secured a unanimous vote from its county council.

In Denver, school officials proposed turning an elementary school into affordable housing for teachers to combat expensive living costs and rapid gentrification. That idea is still up in the air, with some residents lobbying to reopen the building as a school.

Detroit is riddled with empty school buildings. Developers there are buying up properties to repurpose for residential use as they wait to see what the market will bear. The city’s private Catholic schools have seen more success in transforming old buildings into apartments, luxury condominiums, or a boutique office building because they are smaller, easier to renovate, and don’t have the same deed restrictions as public schools.

The same appears to be true in Baltimore, where a nonprofit group converted a 25,000-square-foot Catholic school into housing for women and children. The $6 million project, completed last month, uses federal housing vouchers to subsidize rent.

In Memphis, the community is still assessing what resources need to be tapped in response to this week’s tragic death.

“Simply dismissing this as a tragedy will only allow us to continue to absolve ourselves from the apathy and selfishness that allow people to go unseen,” said the Rev. Lisa Anderson, a Cumberland Presbyterian pastor who is executive director of the city’s Room in the Inn ministry.

academic insurance

Children’s Health Insurance Program is on the brink. Here’s why that matters for education

The fate of the Children’s Health Insurance Program is in Congress’s hands — and children’s education, not just their health, may be at stake.

Congress passed a temporary extension of funding for of CHIP in December, through some states will run out of money shortly. The end of the program would come with obvious potential consequences, as CHIP, which covers approximately 9 million children, gives participants more access to health and dental care.

There may also be a less obvious result: Research has found that access to health insurance helps kids perform better on tests and stay in school longer.

A 2016 study, published in the peer-reviewed Journal of Human Resources, found that expanding Medicaid in the 1980s and 1990s increased students’ likelihood of completing high school and college.

“Our results indicate that the long-run benefits of public health insurance are substantial,” the researchers wrote.

Similarly, an earlier paper shows that broadening access to Medicaid or CHIP led to increases in student achievement.

“We find evidence that test scores in reading, but not math, increased for those children affected at birth by the increase in health insurance eligibility,” researchers Phillip Levine and Diane Whitmore Schanzenbach wrote.

In short, research suggests that when kids are healthier, they do better in school. That’s in line with common sense, as well as studies showing that children benefit academically when their families have access to direct anti-poverty programs like the earned income tax credit or cash benefits.

(Even if CHIP ends, affected children might still have access to subsidized insurance through the Affordable Care Act or other means. The Congressional Budget Office estimates that will be more costly in the long run.)

Congress appears likely to vote on a bill this week that includes a six-year CHIP extension, as as well as a temporary spending measure to avoid a federal government shutdown.