To teach American music, this Colorado teacher takes students back in time

PHOTO: Erin Einhorn

How do teachers captivate their students? Here, in a feature we call How I Teach, we ask great educators how they approach their jobs. You can see other pieces in this series here.

Dave Lunn, the band and orchestra director at Liberty Common High School in Fort Collins, was working at a coffee shop when he got the offer to start a band program at the new charter school.

Although he taught private music lessons at the time, he’d never planned to go into teaching. That was his parents’ field, not his.

But once he got started at Liberty Common, where he teaches music theory and music history, too, he knew it was the career for him.

Lunn, who was one of seven finalists for the 2018 Colorado Teacher of the Year award, talked to Chalkbeat about why his unit on American Roots music is so important, how a Japanese concept influences his teaching and why he loves parent-teacher conferences.

This interview has been condensed and lightly edited.

Why did you become a teacher?
Both of my parents were teachers, so to forge my own identity, I tried to follow a different path. On the side, I had developed a considerable private music studio, teaching saxophone and other instruments, so I became known in the music education community as a private instructor.

While working as a barista, one of my customers who knew that I taught music lessons was involved in starting a new charter school called Liberty Common School. She approached me about starting a band program as an extracurricular activity for the students. What began as a group of 25 students grew into a music program with five bands and a string orchestra at a school that I have now been working at for 20 years. I guess you could say that teaching found me, because as soon as I began, I knew that it was what I was meant to do. I mainly knew this, because I wouldn’t get that pit in my stomach on Sunday evenings that was such a familiar feeling in other jobs. I loved (and still do) the fact that that being a teacher offered endless opportunities to be creative and more effective.

What does your classroom look like?
My classroom communicates two things: 1. My love for all kinds of music (which I hope to be contagious) is broadcast everywhere. There are posters up and musical instruments of all kinds everywhere (I am very clear about which ones are available for students to play and when). 2. That students are welcome. One of my colleagues has dubbed my room “The Oasis,” because stressed-out students often come in during down time to play the piano, or one of the guitars hanging on the wall, or even to study in a low-stress atmosphere.

Fill in the blank. I couldn’t teach without my _________. Why?
My sense of humor. Ever since I was a kid, I loved being (or trying to be) funny. For better or worse, it defined my high school career, as I was voted “Class Clown” of my senior class. In teaching, it has been a great tool for engaging students in the lesson and even more importantly, building relationships. It also keeps me from getting bored!

What is one of your favorite lessons to teach? How did you come up with the idea?
My favorite unit is called “American Roots Music.” I teach this unit in a high school class called Introduction to Music History and Theory. In it, I guide students through an American musical “tree,” in which I demonstrate that most of American popular music can be traced back to the folk songs of slaves in the United States. We then discuss how this beautiful music was anonymously created out of the most miserable and unjust circumstances imaginable. We discuss how, after the abolition of slavery, this music would evolve into gospel and blues music, each branching out into yet more musical genres. We explore the many styles of blues that emerged, such as Delta blues, Chicago blues and Kansas City blues, and the tremendous influence those styles would birth. We journey to New Orleans, and learn about how the unique mixing of African, French, Spanish, and Caribbean cultures would eventually create jazz music. We then trace the evolution of jazz through all of its many styles. Finally, we learn about how the meeting of African-American rhythm and blues with white American country music developed into rock and roll.

There are many reasons that this is my favorite unit to teach. Although I am a band and orchestra director, I love lecturing and putting together presentations, and I do so every chance I get. I’m a performer at heart. I believe that the best performances aren’t just spectacles, but involve and engage the audience. The audience should leave a great performance changed, with a new way of looking at things. American Roots music speaks to my soul like no other music. I want my students to understand what I understand about the sublimity of this music.

How do you respond when a student doesn’t understand your lesson?
The challenge of teaching is, for me, all about striving to help a student understand the concept or material that I am presenting. Like most teachers, I present material in as many ways as I possibly can: visual, auditory, and kinesthetic. I am always checking for understanding through the questions I ask. If I feel that a student still doesn’t understand (and really wants to), I will try to find one-on-one time to work with him or her.

How do you get your class’s attention if students are talking or off task?
In my more traditional, lecture-oriented classes, I begin by playing interesting music that we have learned about during the previous lesson. I slowly raise the volume until I see all eyes up front. As soon as I stop the music, I begin teaching immediately, by beginning with something engaging. What I am trying to do is keep the pace lively, and not to leave any room for other distractions to take the energy away.

I also move around the room quite a bit, so that every student in the class is effectively “sitting up front.” In my music ensembles classes, routines are worked out during the first few days of school to establish when it is acceptable to play your instrument or talk, and when the attention needs to be on me as the conductor. The use of a conductor’s podium and a baton are what makes this happen. My whole goal is to avoid shouting above the din of the classroom. It works most of the time.

How do you get to know your students and build relationships with them? What questions do you ask or what actions do you take?
I take a great interest in getting to know my students individually and, honestly, this is where I put the majority of my energy and receive the most fulfillment back. I use humor to build rapport, establish “buy in,” and disarm any negativity. Other than that, I just pay attention to how different students respond to situations, and I get to know their strengths and weaknesses through our experiences in the classroom. My hope is to be the kind of teacher and mentor that they need.

Tell us about a memorable time — good or bad — when contact with a student’s family changed your perspective or approach.
I know it may sound strange, but I enjoy parent-teacher conferences every year. This is when I get to know the families of new students, as well as continue to build relationships with parents that I have known for years. I always come away with new insights into students who I thought I already knew so much about. While the overwhelming majority of these interactions are positive, I value the more challenging encounters just as much. I learn something every year that helps be get better as an educator.

What are you reading for enjoyment?
I just finished a book about world poverty and possible solutions called “UnPoverty: Rich Lessons from the Working Poor” by Mark Lutz. I know this sounds odd for “reading for enjoyment,” but my daughter is spending a gap year working in Nicaragua, and I read it along with her to get a better insight into the nature of the work she is doing. It’s fascinating and soul-provoking.

I also am reading a book called “Gumption: Relighting the Torch of Freedom with America’s Gutsiest Troublemakers” by Nick Offerman from the television show “Parks and Recreation.” That is one of my favorite shows, and I got to meet Nick Offerman at a book-signing where I bought the book. It’s a collection of short essays about people he admires. It’s filled with his trademark dry humor and wisdom.

What’s the best advice you ever received?
My first principal and education mentor, Dr. Kathryn Knox, mentioned a word that she picked up while living in Japan. The word is “muda,” and it roughly means futility, uselessness, wastefulness. She said that her password at the time was “muda gone”. This inspired me at the time to identify those things that could interfere with my effectiveness as a teacher, and even more importantly, my passion for teaching. There are so many elements in an educator’s career that threaten to weigh us down with “muda,” and keep us from focusing in keeping the joy of learning alive in our students. I have always tried to give all “muda” only the minimal space in my mind that is required, so that my energy is fully available for teaching. It has worked well so far.

How the 2018 national teacher of the year manages a classroom with 12 languages with a white board and a paper clip

PHOTO: Ferguson Films
2018 national teacher of the year Mandy Manning.

Four years ago, Mandy Manning realized she wanted to have an impact outside her classroom, where she spent her days teaching immigrant and refugee students how to navigate their new school and new lives.

To do that, though, she also realized that she would need more than just years of experience. She would need a platform.

This year, she got just that: Manning, who teaches in Spokane, Washington, was named the 2018 national teacher of year.

“People need to know how amazing these immigrant and refugee students are,” she told Chalkbeat.

It’s a message she feels more urgency to spread as the current presidential administration takes a harsh position toward immigrants and asylum-seekers. Manning said she spent several months responding to students asking her when they would have to leave the country.

But the core of Manning’s work is to teach immigrant and refugee students foundational language skills and help ease their transition to the U.S. The students, who come from across the school district, usually spend one semester with her at the Newcomer Center at Joel E. Ferris High School.

“I’m their ambassador. Hopefully I’m a good example of what we are as Americans,” she said.

This interview, part of Chalkbeat’s How I Teach series, has been edited and condensed for clarity.

Was there a moment when you decided to become a teacher?

Teaching really chose me, because I hadn’t intended to become a teacher. I finished my undergraduate degree, which was in filmmaking, and I really wasn’t interested in continuing in that line of work. A friend, who was a paraeducator — someone within a classroom who works one-on-one with students — suggested I become a paraeducator.

Then I taught in the Peace Corps, which really helped expand my worldview. Even after that, I wasn’t convinced I wanted to be a teacher. I moved to Texas and my aunt suggested I apply to teaching positions, even though I wasn’t certified or had a degree in education. It was almost as if teaching was pursuing me and I was just denying it.

How do you get to know your students?

I’m very welcoming to them. I think that’s so essential, because the very first day is where you set your climate and environment in the classroom. For me that means being very upbeat and excited and ensuring that I’m introducing myself to every student as they’re walking in and figuring out their name and where they’re from and what languages they speak.

I used to teach general education — film making, journalism, communications, English. With them I would just have conversations like, ‘You are an individual and I’m an individual and yes I am your teacher and you are my student but I’m still interested in who you are not just as a learner but as a person.’ With the newcomers, it’s a little more difficult because we’re starting with charades, essentially.

So slowly, every day, I learn something new about my kids and that’s my goal. As long as I learn something about one student each day, I’m moving forward.

Tell us about a favorite lesson to teach. Where did the idea come from?

It’s our “Out in the Community” lesson. It has to do with the foundational language we’re teaching — giving and receiving directions and the basic ability to navigate your community. The reason I love it so much is that we actually get to go out and explore the neighborhood of the school and sometimes the downtown area of Spokane — the actual community in which they live and they’re expected to function as community members.

It’s so fun to watch the kids and what things are of interest to them and how they draw their maps. They also make connections back to their home country when they’re talking about the differences between their neighborhoods or schools or communities.

What object would you be helpless without during the school day?

My whiteboard and markers. Personally, I need a paper clip, which is so dumb, but it helps me concentrate. I just play with it when I’m teaching and communicating with kids. But the thing I really need in my classroom all the time is the ability to write things down because it helps with that comprehensible input for my kids.

What’s something happening in the community that affects what goes on inside your class?

Right now, it’s the climate around immigrants and refugees. Spokane is pretty good, pretty neutral. There isn’t a whole lot of negative communication or messaging, but it does happen. It’s happened in our hallways at school where kids have been told to go back to Africa or horrible racist slurs have been called against Arabic kids or kids from African nations. It impacts how welcome and comfortable my students feel.

It also brings older students, who have gone beyond the Newcomer Center back to my classroom more often, because my room represents the first place they were comfortable and safe. They’re often returning to me and the bilingual specialist I work with just for the reassurance that they’re welcome and they’re safe here in our nation. That’s something we now have to navigate every single day.

Tell us about a memorable time — good or bad — when contact with a student’s family changed your perspective or approach.

The first year I started to do home visits — at that time I had families from Burma, Iraq, Afghanistan, and different nations in Africa. These home visits with all these different families showed me so much about individual differences between people of the same culture and between different cultures.

I got to see how they’re living, who they’re living with, the different type of homes — apartments, duplexes, single-family dwellings, or a house — and just how they interacted with each other. It broadened my perspective of family. there are so many different types of families within the students born within the United States, then to see it on a such a large scale with different cultures, it’s helped me to seek value in every single different type of family. And to understand that even though things operate differently in each home, that doesn’t diminish the beauty of that home.

What part of your job is most difficult?

The hardest part is the middle of the year, semester-end. Kids at the Newcomer Center come from all over the school district. Usually after a semester, they then go on to their neighborhood high school. We have several practices in place to help with transition, but that semester break, it’s really hard to say goodbye to the kids.

It’s harder than at the end of the year because at the end of the year, we’re all taking a break. That semester, some of my kids are leaving and I’m not going to see them on a regular basis. And we’ve bonded with one another so much that it’s really hard, and I always end crying for the whole day because I’m going to miss them so much.

What was your biggest misconception that you initially brought to teaching?

I didn’t know what I was doing at all when I had my first classroom. I didn’t even know how to read a teacher’s edition of a textbook. I sort of jumped in with both feet. I guess I assumed I needed to understand how to build a lesson exactly and that would be a hard hurdle for me, but I soon found out it doesn’t matter how beautifully you structure your lesson plan, because teaching is really about monitoring and adjusting for whatever the needs are of the kids at the time. You might have the most beautiful lesson but chances are it will shift and change in the first 10 minutes.

What’s the best advice you’ve received about teaching?  

Focus on your kids and everything else will fall into place.

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‘What if this was my son?’ How Newark’s Teacher of the Year pushes autistic students to succeed

PHOTO: Patrick Wall
Lourdes Reyes, Newark's 2018 Teacher of the Year.

A normal Monday in Lourdes Reyes’ classroom at the First Avenue School begins with a pleasant routine.

Her six students, a mix of first and second-graders with autism, eat breakfast quietly at their desks then brush their teeth in the restroom. Then they return to class, as they did one Monday morning this month, to recite the days and months and share highlights from the weekend — a trip to the zoo, playtime in the park, an evening bike ride.

“Alright,” Reyes said in a soothing tone as she moved the lesson along. “Everybody had a good weekend.”

But on Monday, May 7, things were far from normal.

That was when the district’s interim superintendent arrived unannounced in her classroom bearing balloons and a bouquet, with television cameras in tow, to inform her that she was Newark’s 2018 Teacher of the Year. Reyes tearfully accepted the award as her daughter, a teacher at Elliott Street School, looked on. Then she walked into the hallway, where dozens of students cheered and chanted her name.

“I couldn’t believe it,” Reyes told Chalkbeat during a recent interview.

In college, Reyes had studied to become a social worker. But after her son, Ishmail, was born with autism, she wanted to learn more about his condition. Before long, she had earned a master’s degree in special education and become a teacher of students with autism — a job she’s held for 21 years.

After two decades, she has yet to slow down. Every day after class she begins her second job as an early-intervention specialist, visiting families’ homes to work with young children suspected of having disabilities. After finishing around 8:30 p.m., she takes a late-night walk with her youngest son — a routine that, along with a healthy new diet, helped her lose 65 pounds over the past year.

Reyes stays just as busy at school. In addition to academic lessons, she teaches her students life skills like tying their shoes and cooking — sometimes on a portable stove, which Reyes used one day this year to cook green eggs and ham. In April, which is National Autism Awareness Month, she helped raise $2,300 for the school’s autism program and organized a performance where her students sang Disney songs. Reyes performed alongside wearing the red hat and spotted pants of Jessie the Yodeling Cowgirl from “Toy Story.”

Principal Jose Fuentes, who was part of the 10-person leadership team at First Avenue that nominated Reyes for her award, called her “one of the pillars of the school.” She extends herself far beyond her own classroom, showing colleagues and parents how to challenge and support students with autism, Fuentes said.

“She’s giving new light to the possibilities of what it means to be an educator,” he said. “That’s Reyes.”

The following interview has been condensed and edited for clarity.

How did you get into teaching?

When my second son was born, Ishmail, he was born with autism.

I was first of all shocked that I had an autistic son. It was very difficult and devastating for all of us. My husband and I had to go for counseling. It was very hard. But then we overcame it. I decided I’m going to take something negative and make something positive out of it.

So I went to graduate school and I took classes on special ed. I loved it and so I took another class. One class led to another.

Then I started volunteering at my son’s school. I was there all the time. In the evenings my husband would get home, he’d watch the kids, I’d go and take my class.

Next thing you know, in two years I completed a master’s in special ed.

How has being the parent of a child with autism shaped the way you teach?

Everything I still do today is focused on, “What if this was my son?”

I think that’s what makes me a little different. Like if I was doing this for him, how would I teach it?

What have you learned about what it takes to be an effective teacher of students with autism?

You can’t feel sorry for a child. Just because they have a disability does not mean that they can’t do something. You have to put that aside and show them in a way that tough love to get them to master the skills. Which is hard for some of the parents to do.

We have to do a lot of what the parents don’t do. For instance, tooth brushing, that’s a life skill. At home they say, “He doesn’t want to brush his teeth.” But they do it here every morning.

It sounds like a big part of your job is working with parents.

I give them my cell number. They call me at all times.

Sometimes [a student’s mother] will say, “It’s a rough morning. He didn’t want to change. I’m sending you the uniform in the book bag.” Then when he comes in, we transition him. When we do toothbrushing we say, “You need to change now.”

Then when it’s 2:45, “You don’t want to wear it? OK, let’s go change you. Put on your jeans, go on the bus.” Happy trooper.

How are you able to make progress with students who come in without many academic skills?

It’s ongoing, and it’s repetitive. Teaching the skills. Pulling them out, teaching them [through] individualized instruction.

And it happens also with the assistance of the aides. I have four great aides. None of this could happen without them.

Ms. [Rasheedah] Jacobs, guess how many years she’s been with me. Fourteen. When I came here and interviewed, I said, “I’ll take the job under the condition that Ms. Jacobs could come with me.” She really, really is a great teacher. I call her a teacher, not even an aide. She’s my right hand.

Can you think of a student whom you had a lot of success with?

Last year, I had one of my highest functioning students. She has Asperger’s. What a thrill to have that little girl. Oh my gosh.

Every week the principal gives the word of the week. She memorized and knew every single word from September to June. And recited it in an assembly, with a sentence for each word. She’s unbelievable!

We had a student [at Quitman Street Community School] who had a band on his esophagus, and he had a feeding tube in kindergarten. We couldn’t believe it — he was in diapers.

I was like, “If we can get this little boy to be toilet trained, that will be a success.” Do you know we mastered that? We did it.

How do you know if you’ve been successful by the end of the year?

Seeing [a student] who didn’t know the letters of the alphabet, seeing him writing sentences, filling in blanks, reciting words.

Knowing [a different student] can tie his shoes. Knowing he can brush his teeth.

Knowing that parents are happy with the progress of their students. Them sharing with me the change in their child once they started coming into my classroom. Parents telling me, “Oh, that’s not the same kid who was in the school last year. That’s a different child.”

What’s your advice to teachers who are just starting out?

Have a lot of patience. Be real devoted.

And do not look at a student with autism as a person who is weak. Have high expectations that they are capable of doing everything and anything with the right accommodations.

It can be done, but it takes someone with dedication, sensitivity, and also someone who does not feel sorry for a child. Anything is possible. There are no limits.