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Five things to look for in this year’s school-level TCAP scores

PHOTO: Alan Petersime

When the state releases its third and final set of test scores for 2014 on Tuesday, it will finally reveal how students at individual schools fared on this year’s Tennessee Comprehensive Assessment Program, known as TCAP.

In July, the state announced broad trends for the year, revealing that test scores overall crept up this year. Three weeks ago, it unveiled scores by district, showing that Shelby County Schools and the state-run Achievement School District had made gains but continue to lag behind the rest of the state.

Now, it is releasing data about individual schools’ performance — a measure that has high stakes for schools, educators, and communities.

The state uses school-level scores to decide which schools to take over or otherwise overhaul, and districts use the scores to decide which schools to close. By law, test scores must also factor in teacher and principal evaluations, and school-wide scores are used to rate teachers in subjects where there is no single state test.

Critics of the state education department say too much emphasis has been placed on test scores. But while the scores certainly don’t tell us everything about what’s happening inside of individual schools, they do forecast where we can expect the state’s and districts’ attention to be focused in the next few years. They also point to differences in how much individual schools put test scores first.

Here are a few things we’ll be looking out for in this round of data:

1. Which schools will land on the state’s second-ever “priority list”?

The state is using this year’s scores to revamp its list of schools in the bottom 5 percent in the state. That list, known as the “priority list,” was first calculated three years ago based on schools’ proficiency rates in reading, math, and science (the formula for high schools includes graduation rate). Any school on the list is eligible to be taken over by the state-run ASD. Several districts, including Nashville and Shelby County Schools, use the scores to determine which schools will be subject to dramatic turnarounds as part of their Innovation Zones.

It will be interesting to where the schools on the list will be: Sixty-nine of the 83 schools on the last list were in Memphis, which has made the city ground zero for the ASD. But officials have hinted that this list could include more schools in other cities, including Nashville. The list will forecast where we can anticipate more takeovers, and more of the drama and strong opinions that accompany them.

And, as both Nashville and Shelby County have indicated that they may soon have charter school operators run low-performing schools, the new list will signal where charter growth is likely in coming years.

2. Did schools benefit from landing on the priority list last time?

Many of the state’s school improvement efforts have been focused on “bottom 5 percent schools,” or those on the first priority list. The new scores will offer one data point about how much those efforts have paid off. If the new “bottom 5 percent” is a higher-scoring group of schools than it was three years ago, look for the state to say that its focus on the lowest-scoring schools has raised the bar for everyone.

The school-by-school data will also show which efforts, if any, are associated with the biggest gains. Not all schools on the priority list received state or district interventions, so there will be a control group to show whether the state’s involvement lifted bottom 5 percent schools beyond where they might have gotten on their own.

3. What difference have state and local changes to how low-scoring schools are operated made for the schools?

The ASD is now in its third year running schools. The state-run district has said that results are mixed. The new scores will show which schools are doing well and which are struggling. Knowing that, we’ll then be able to ask why.

In addition, both Nashville and Shelby County created Innovation Zones, funded by federal grants, to prove that they could improve schools in their own districts without handing them over to the state. Last year, Shelby County’s I-Zone outperformed the state’s ASD. The new scores will show whether I-Zone schools sustained those gains.

One unexpected side effect of the I-Zone, according to Shelby County officials, is that schools that lost staff to I-Zone schools are struggling. The school-level scores will show whether the struggles registered on testing day. If so, it hints at a bigger challenge for districts: How do you make sure you’re really improving all schools, not just shuffling around successful educators?

4. What do individual schools’ scores suggest for Memphis’s new municipal districts? 

Six municipal districts split off from the recently merged Shelby County Schools district. The school-level results will give us a peek about how schools within each of the new districts are doing, and whether we will soon be seeing a more stratified Shelby County, where students in some of the smaller — and more affluent — districts are scoring notably higher than others.

5. How’s Shelby County doing in reading and math? Which schools are leading the pack

Shelby County Schools has set a goal to raise academics and graduation rates throughout the district. Its biggest focus is on literacy. The school-level scores will show us which schools in the district are on track to meet those goals.

We’ll keep an eye out for schools that made larger-than-expected. Who’s got reading programs worth learning from? Where are high schoolers acing their algebra exams? What can schools learn from those leaders and teachers?

And we’ll also be on the lookout for schools that made even less improvement than the district as a whole. Figuring out what’s happening inside those buildings could offer clues about the challenges ahead for efforts to bring improvements.

What else should we be looking for in the school-level test scores? Let us know in the comments section.

Surprising report

EXCLUSIVE: Did online snafus skew Tennessee test scores? Analysts say not much

PHOTO: TN.gov
Education Commissioner Candice McQueen will release the results of Tennessee's 2017-18 standardized test this week, but the reliability of those TNReady scores has been in question since this spring's problem-plagued administration of the online exam.

An independent analysis of technical problems that disrupted Tennessee’s online testing program this spring is challenging popular opinion that student scores were significantly tainted as a result.

Education Commissioner Candice McQueen said Wednesday that the disruptions to computerized testing had “small to no impact” on scores, based on a monthlong analysis by the Human Resources Research Organization, or HumRRO. The Virginia-based technical group has expertise in psychometrics, the science behind educational assessments.

“We do believe these are valid, reliable scores,” McQueen told Chalkbeat on the eve of releasing state- and district-level scores for TNReady, the state’s standardized test in its third year.


Here are five things to know as Tennessee prepares to release TNReady scores


The state hired the research group to scrutinize several issues, including whether frequent online testing snafus made this year’s results unreliable. For instance, during at least seven days out of the three-week testing window, students statewide reported problems logging in, staying online, and submitting their tests — issues that eventually prompted the Legislature to roll back the importance of scores in students’ final grades, teacher evaluations, and school accountability systems.

But the analysis did not reveal a dramatic impact.

“For students who experienced the disruption, the analysis did not find any systematic effect on test scores that resulted from lapses in time between signing in and submitting their tests,” McQueen told Chalkbeat.

There was, however, a “small but consistent effect” if a student had to log on multiple times in order to complete the test, she said.

“When I say small, we’re talking about an impact that would be a handful of scale score points out of, say, a possible 200 or 250 points,” McQueen said.

Analysts found some differences in test score averages between 2017 and 2018 but concluded they were not due to the technical disruptions.

“Plausible explanations could be the students just didn’t know the (academic) standards as well and just didn’t do as well on the test,” McQueen said. “Or perhaps they were less motivated after learning that their scores would not count in their final grades after the legislation passed. … The motivation of our students is an unknown we just can’t quantify. We can’t get in their minds on motivation.”

About half of the 600,000 students who took TNReady this year tested with computers, and the other half used paper materials in the state’s transition to online exams. Those testing online included all high school students.

Out of about 502,000 end-of-course tests administered to high schoolers, educators filed about 7,600 irregularity reports – about 1.4 percent – related to problems with test administration, which automatically invalidated those results.

The state asked the analysts specifically to look at the irregularity reports for patterns that could be cause for concern, such as demographic shifts or excessive use of invalidations. They found none.

TNReady headaches started on April 16 – the first day of testing – when students struggled to log on. More problems emerged during the weeks that followed until technicians finally traced the issues to a combination of “bugs in the software” and the slowness of a computerized tool that helps students in need of audible instructions. At one point, officials with testing company Questar blamed a possible cyberattack for shutting down its online platform, but state investigators later dismissed that theory.

While this year’s scores officially are mostly inconsequential, McQueen emphasized Wednesday that the results are still valuable for understanding student performance and growth and analyzing the effectiveness of classroom instruction across Tennessee.

“TNReady scores should be looked at just like any data point in the scheme of multiple data points,” she said. “That’s how we talk about this every year. But it’s an important data point.”

heads up

Tennessee will release TNReady test scores on Thursday. Here are five things to know.

PHOTO: Getty Images/Kali9

When Tennessee unveils its latest standardized test scores on Thursday, the results won’t count for much.

Technical problems marred the return to statewide online testing this spring, prompting the passage of several emergency state laws that rendered this year’s TNReady scores mostly inconsequential. As a result, poor results can’t be used to hold students, educators, or schools accountable — for instance, firing a teacher or taking over a struggling school through the state’s Achievement School District.

But good or bad, the scores still can be useful, say teachers like Josh Rutherford, whose 11th-grade students were among those who experienced frequent online testing interruptions in April.

“There are things we can learn from the data,” said Rutherford, who teaches English at Houston County High School. “I think it would be unprofessional to simply dismiss this year’s scores.”

Heading into this week’s data dump, here are five things to know:

1. This will be the biggest single-day release of state scores since the TNReady era began three years ago.

Anyone with internet access will be able to view state- and district-level scores for math, English, and science for grades 3-12. And more scores will come later. School-by-school data will be released publicly in a few weeks. In addition, Tennessee will unveil the results of its new social studies test this fall after setting the thresholds for what constitutes passing scores at each grade level.

2. Still, this year’s results are anticlimactic.

There are two major reasons. First, many educators and parents question the scores’ reliability due to days of online testing headaches. They also worry that high school students stopped trying after legislators stepped in to say the scores don’t necessarily have to count in final grades. Second, because the scores won’t carry their intended weight, the stakes are lower this year. For instance, teachers have the option of nullifying their evaluation scores. And the state also won’t give each school an A-F grade this fall as originally planned. TNReady scores were supposed to be incorporated into both of those accountability measures.

3. The state is looking into the reliability of the online test scores.

In addition to an internal review by the Education Department, the state commissioned an independent analysis by the Human Resources Research Organization. Researchers for the Virginia-based technical group studied the impact of Tennessee’s online interruptions by looking into testing irregularity reports filed in schools and by scrutinizing variances from year to year and school to school, among other things. (Editor’s note: After this story’s initial publication, Education Commissioner Candice McQueen revealed what the analysis found. Here’s that story.)

4. The reliability of paper-and-pencil test scores are not as much in question.

Only about half of Tennessee’s 600,000 students who took TNReady this year tested on computers. The other half — in grades 3-5 and many students in grades 6-8 — took the exams the old-fashioned way. Though there were some complaints related to paper testing too, state officials say they’re confident about those results. Even so, the Legislature made no distinction between the online and paper administrations of TNReady when they ordered that scores only count if they benefit students, teachers, and schools.

5. Ultimately, districts and school communities will decide how to use this year’s data.

Even within the same district, it wasn’t uncommon for one school to experience online problems and another to enjoy a much smoother testing experience. “Every district was impacted differently,” said Dale Lynch, executive director of the state superintendents organization. “It’s up to the local district to look at the data and make decisions based on those local experiences.”

District leaders have been reviewing the embargoed scores for several weeks, and they’ll share them with teachers in the days and weeks ahead. As for families, parents can ask to see their students’ individual score reports so they can learn from this year’s results, too. Districts distribute those reports in different ways, but they’re fair game beginning Thursday. You can learn more here.