By the numbers

Mark Zuckerberg’s education giving so far has topped $300 million. Here’s a list of where it’s going

Read our full story on the Chan Zuckerberg Initiative’s education giving here.

Chalkbeat attempted to compile grants issued or promised in 2016 or later and classified as part of the Chan Zuckerberg Initiative’s education giving. This includes 19 grants provided by CZI, as well as information provided by other organizations or available publicly. We aimed to exclude education-oriented grants focused on Silicon Valley, which CZI classifies separately.

What we collected includes over 50 groups and about $137 million of the $308 million CZI says it has donated to education-related causes.

It’s highly likely that not every group CZI has donated to is on this list, and we don’t how much money some groups on it received. It’s also possible that some organizations on this list received additional grants that aren’t accounted for.

Finally, we also listed a number of for-profit education companies that CZI has invested in; that’s not part of the $308 million number.

Here’s our list:

Organizations that have received grants from CZI

Reach Every Reader

Grant Amount: $30 million
Grant Reason – CZI: “We are supporting Reach Every Reader, a new initiative aimed at gaining a better understanding of how children learn to read so we can ensure that all can thrive and succeed as readers from an early age. This initiative is led by cutting-edge neuroscience and education research teams from the Harvard Graduate School of Education, and Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)’s Integrated Learning Initiative, in partnership with The Florida Center for Reading Research and Charlotte-Mecklenburg Schools.”

College Board

Grant Amount: $13.9 million
Grant Reason – CZI: “With our support, the College Board has expanded access for more than 500,000 students to unique, personalized learning opportunities – including customized SAT practice through Khan Academy, Advanced Placement computer science courses and peer advising through the National College Advising Corps.”

LEAP Innovations

Grant Amount: $10 million
Grant Reason – CZI:“We’re supporting these organizations [LEAP and Chicago Public Schools] to help meet the growing demand from Chicago schools looking to introduce or expand personalized learning instructional models.”

Teach For America

Grant Amount: $10 million
Grant Reason – CZI: “This grant has supported the development of an organization-wide learning strategy, building capacity for rapid learning within the regional affiliate network, and accelerating TFA’s work on increasing the diversity, equity, and inclusion of the educator pipeline.”

EducationSuperHighway

Grant Amount: $8 million
Grant Reason – CZI: “We have supported the work of this organization to help increase the internet connectivity of classrooms across America.”

Turnaround for Children

Grant Amount: $7 million
Grant Reason – CZI: “Our grant assists Turnaround for Children with bringing new knowledge to the field about how to effectively implement and integrate tools to help achieve personalization of learning for all students.”

New Profit

Grant Amount: $6,511,962
Grant Reason – New Profit spokesperson: “For our efforts to support more diverse entrepreneurs in education, we received $500K from CZI in 2017. For our Personalized Learning initiative, which seeks to build capacity and evidence in the nascent field, we received $6,011,962 from CZI in 2017.”

New Schools Venture Fund

Grant Amount: $5 million +

SAGA Innovations

Grant Amount: $5 million
Grant Reason – CZI: “Our support is helping SAGA refine and expand their evidence-based program on intensive tutoring for students who are behind and increasing effectiveness and lowering cost for delivery.”

Pahara Institute

Grant Amount: $4.3 million
Grant Reason – CZI: “We have supported the organization’s fellowships to provide challenging and supportive leadership programs for entrepreneurial leaders in education.”

Chicago Public Schools

Grant Amount: $4 million
Grant Reason – CZI: “We’re supporting these organizations [LEAP and Chicago Public Schools] to help meet the growing demand from Chicago schools looking to introduce or expand personalized learning instructional models.”

Vision to Learn

Grant Amount: $3.3 million
Grant Reason – CZI: “With our support, the organization has provided eyeglasses to tens of thousands of children in the San Francisco Bay area and across the country, removing a critical learning barrier for students without access to vision care. They have given out more than 110,000 glasses to date.”

Chiefs for Change

Grant Amount: $3 million
Grant Reason – Chiefs for Change spokesperson: The grant was for a “transforming schools and systems workgroup.”

Woodrow Wilson National Fellowship Foundation

Grant Amount: $3 million
Grant Reason – CZI: “Grant supports the Woodrow Wilson Teaching and Learning Academy’s efforts to help people studying to be teachers to learn at their own pace, personalizing their learning experience, and connecting what they learn to evidence-based learning approaches.”

Results for America

Grant Amount: $2.9 million
Grant Reason – CZI: “We support RFA’s work to improve the use of evidence in shaping policy among state and district education agencies through their What Works Districts initiative and their State Education Leaders Evidence Fellowship program.”

Together For Students, a partnership between The Coalition for Community Schools, Communities In Schools, and StriveTogether

Grant Amount: $2,283,200
Grant Reason – Communities in Schools spokesperson: “Together for Students (formerly known as Students at the Center) is an initiative designed to advance a student-centered learning movement that unites families, educators and local partners. The grant supports: the work of 10 communities as they design localized blueprints to improve student learning experiences; the three partner organizations as they provide training and technical assistance to the 10 communities, and a February 2018 convening of 106 communities interested in applying for the project.”

Californians Dedicated to Education Foundation

Grant Amount: $2.25 million
Grant Reason – CDEF: “CDEF partnered with the California Department of Education (CDE) and technology company Declara to launch the Collaboration In Common (CiC) platform and support the state’s #GoOpen campaign. CiC provides a social network for professional learning communities that provides tools and resources to promote sharing and collaboration between educators and educational organizations across the state. The Chan Zuckerberg Initiative grant will be used to support CiC and enhancements to the Declara platform to accelerate personalized learning and professional growth.”

New Teacher Center

Grant Amount: $1.7 million
Grant Reason – CZI: “Our grant supports their work to develop and provide professional development support on personalized learning strategies to educators.”

The Opportunity Institute

Grant Amount: $1,524,534

Grant Reason – Opportunity Institute: CZI is supporting the group’s Science of Learning and Development Initiative, which aims to “elevate the science of learning and development as a key driver of system transformation in education policy and practice, advancing deep personalization of learning and the learning experience to support all students in achieving their full potential.”

CZI is also supporting the Partners for Each and Every Child, “to build an infrastructure of interconnected work that will encourage a growing portion of the education policy community to break down barriers to advance sound educational policies, attentive to matters of equity and responsive to the needs of at-risk, under-served, and politically underrepresented students.”

Rhode Island Office of Innovation

Grant Amount: $1.5 million
Grant Reason – RI Office of Innovation spokesperson: The grant is going “to support the state’s personalized learning initiative.”

Digital Promise

Grant Amount: $1.4 million
Grant Reason – CZI: “Our grant supports their efforts to pilot and refine solutions to collaborative challenges around real-world learning through the Digital Promise League of Innovative Schools, their flagship network that represents 93 districts in 33 states.”

TNTP

Grant Amount: $1.25 million
Grant Reason – CZI: “Our grant supports TNTP’s work on understanding student engagement and supporting the personalized learning efforts of partner school districts.”

Harvard Graduate School of Education and Stephanie Jones

Grant Amount: $1.1 million
Grant Reason – CZI: “Our grant supports efforts to research and develop simple strategies and classroom activities for teachers to easily incorporate social-emotional learning into their classrooms.”

Education Post

Grant Amount: $1 million
Grant Reason – Education Post executive director: Half of the grant went to general operating support and half went to Education Post’s California blog La Comadre.

Surge Institute

Grant Amount: $1 million
Grant Reason – CZI: “We have supported Surge’s efforts to elevate and support leaders of color.”

Lindsay Unified School District

Grant Amount: $775,000
Grant Reason – Lindsay Unified’s website: The grant is to “advance Lindsay’s Performance Based System.”

CASEL

Grant Amount: $750,000
Grant Reason – CZI: “We are supporting CASEL’s engagement of key leaders and advisors to ensure that their framework and the broad definition of social and emotional learning (SEL) reflects the latest science and best practices in the field. Findings will inform the continued development and refinement of CASEL’s suite of practical resources to support those in the field prioritizing this work.”

Common Sense Media

Grant Amount: $750,000
Grant Reason – Common Sense Media spokesperson: Two-year grant is “for our Privacy Evaluations and our overall Education programs … Common Sense rates and reviews ed tech products on the degree to which they protect student privacy and security. We publish these ratings on the Common Sense education website as a complement to our overall Ed Tech Ratings to evaluate learning quality. CZI is one of three funders of the initiative.”

International Society for Technology in Education

Grant Amount: $720,000
Grant Reason – CZI: “We are supporting this organization as it examines new strategies to incorporate learning science into professional learning for educators.”

EdSurge

Grant Amount: $700,000
Grant Reason – July post on EdSurge: Grant is for a research project meant “to explore how school communities across the country are changing to meet the needs of all learners.” The project includes “convening educators and school leaders” and “a collection of stories.”

ReSchool Colorado

Grant Amount: $700,000
Grant Reason – ReSchool Colorado spokesperson: “The Chan Zuckerberg Initiative granted $700,000 to support ReSchool’s Learner Advocate Network and out of school work. To date, we have received $350,000.”

Edutopia

Grant Amount: $500,000
Grant Reason – Edutopia spokesperson: The grant is “to assist Edutopia with producing and publishing a video series for and in collaboration with the National Commission on Social Emotional and Academic Development: profiling schools with impactful approaches to social, emotional and academic development and translating research into practice.”

Council of Chief State School Officers

Grant Amount: $388,938
Grant Reason – CCSSO spokesperson: “This year, we are using this grant funding as part of our efforts to support states that are working to expand access to quality personalized, competency-based education that will lead to improved outcomes for all students, largely through the creation of innovative assessment systems.”

Achievement First Public Charter Schools

Grant Amount: $350,000
Grant Reason – Achievement First spokesperson: Grant is for AF’s Greenfield program.

Education Leaders of Color

Grant Amount: $300,000
Grant Reason – Education Leaders of Color spokesperson: Grant is to “1) identify and equip the field with values-aligned leadership, 2) align our members toward common advancement of policies and practices, and 3) provide access to resources through the Boulder Fund.”

Chalkbeat

Grant Amount: $250,000
Grant Reason – CZI: “We support Chalkbeat’s coverage of education policy and practice.”

GO Public Schools

Grant Amount: $250,000
Grant Reason – GO Public Schools spokesperson: “A couple of years ago, GO received funding from the Chan Zuckerberg Initiative to support efforts to refresh our policy agenda and explore launching in Fresno.” A report recently issued by GO acknowledges funding from CZI and others.

InnovateEDU

Grant Amount: $160,000
Grant Reason – InnovateEDU executive director: The grant was issued through the Silicon Schools Fund and used to create a “community of practice” known as Data Whiz among schools leaders and personalized learning managers.

Matthew Biel of MedStar Georgetown University Hospital

Grant Amount: $75,000
Grant Reason – CZI press release: Grant is for “piloting evidence-based approaches to promote self-care skills, stress management, and emotional wellbeing for teachers in the D.C. area.”

Center for American Progress

Grant Amount: $15,000
Grant Reason – CAP spokesperson: CZI grant is “to explore the science of learning. With their modest support and other foundation support, we held a convening to discuss options for improving education based on the latest research on how students learn best.”

Grantmakers for Education

Grant Reason: Sponsor of its annual conference.

Hechinger Report

Grant Reason – Hechinger: Grant “helps support our ‘Future of Learning’ coverage.”

Learning Policy Institute

Grant Reason – LPI spokesperson: “We are part of a consortium of organizations that is working on synthesizing evidence from the sciences of learning and development and drawing out the implications for practice.”

Newark schools

Grant Reason – CZI spokesperson: “As part of our commitment to Newark’s students and educators, we provided funding to meet emerging community needs identified by the district to ensure a smooth transition to local control.”

Summit Public Schools

Grant Reason – Summit spokesperson: “In our own schools in CA and WA we have used [CZI’s] support to:

  • Staff a dedicated Research & Development team to work on continuous improvement of the Summit Learning instructional approach;
  • Launch and operate a Teacher Residency Program, designed specifically to build a long-term, sustainable pipeline of diverse teachers prepared to lead high-quality, personalized instruction in Summit Learning classrooms
  • Purchase and construct school facilities.

The funding they provide also helps enable us to deliver the Summit Learning Program, for free, to schools across the country. This includes the cost of:

  • Three free professional development convenings each year for upwards of 2,500 educators in more than a dozen cities across the country
  • The creation of a robust, project-based teacher-created curriculum for grades 4-12.
  • A team of dedicated mentors who personally coach Summit Learning Program schools on an ongoing basis
  • A dedicated professional development team which builds and facilitates adult learning experiences.”

Other CZI grantees

  • Camelback Ventures
  • Character Lab
  • Charter School Growth Fund
  • Latinos for Education
  • New Leaders
  • New Classrooms
  • Project Evident

Companies that have received investments from CZI

  • Age of Learning
  • BYJU’s – The Learning App
  • RaiseMe
  • Ellevation
  • Panorama Education
  • Sawyer
  • Brightwheel
  • Varsity Tutors
  • MasteryConnect
  • VolleyLabs

Correction: A previous subheadline incorrectly identified organizations that received grants from CZI as exclusively nonprofits.

Face-to-face

In ‘speed dating’ exercise, Detroiters grill school board candidates about third-grade reading, charter schools

PHOTO: Erin Einhorn
Corletta Vaughn, a candidate for Detroit school board, speaks to Detroiters at a forum Thursday evening as Nita Redmond (center) looks on. Vaughn says the district should be open to collaboration with charter schools and suburban districts.

On its face, the public forum Thursday night was about candidates for Detroit school board. In fact, the night belonged to the citizens.

Early in the evening, a tableful of Detroiters — most of them graduates of Detroit public schools, all of them concerned about the future of Michigan’s largest school district — set about deciding what they wanted to ask the candidates during a series of Q&A sessions that CitizenDetroit, which co-sponsored the forum with Chalkbeat, called “speed-dating.”

Shirley Corley, a first-grade reading teacher who retired from the city’s main district, honed in on the state’s “read-or-flunk” law, which could force schools in Detroit to hold back many of their third graders next year if they can’t pass a state reading exam.

“I heard that one on the TV, and I couldn’t believe my ears,” she said.

As a gong sounded, she hurried to shape her outrage into a question: “What are your plans about holding back third-grade readers, and why aren’t they reading better?”

Then Terrell George, one of the candidates for two openings on the school board, sat down across the table. She asked her question.

All across a packed union hall in Detroit’s historic Corktown neighborhood, similar scenes were playing out. Candidates rotated between tables, where they sat face-to-face with roughly 10 Detroit residents armed with prepared questions and many lifetimes-worth of combined experience with the city’s main school district. Every five minutes, someone hit a gong, and candidates got another chance to lay out their vision for the troubled district and impress the voters who will decide their future at the polls in November.

It is Detroit’s first school board election since the board regained control of Michigan’s largest district, which was run for nearly a decade by state-appointed emergency managers. And it marks a crucial milestone in the district turnaround effort led by Superintendent Nikolai Vitti, whose reforms have so far enjoyed the board’s support.

(Six of the nine candidates attended the event. Deborah Lemmons and M. Murray [the full name listed on the ballot] didn’t respond to an invitation, according to CitizenDetroit. Britney Sharp said she had a scheduling conflict and was unable to attend.)

From Natalya Henderson, a 2016 graduate of Cass Technical High School, to Reverend David Murray (his legal name), a retired social worker and minister who previously served a long, sometimes controversial stint on the school board, a broad field of candidates are vying to help steer a district through a historic turnaround effort. The winners will help decide what to do about the $500 million cost for urgent school renovations and test scores that are persistently among the worst in the nation.

(Click here to watch the candidates introduce themselves in two-minute videos, and here for short bios.)

candidate statements
PHOTO: Koby Levin
Deborah Hunter-Harvill, the lone incumbent running for school board, makes an opening statement. Candidates made one-minute opening statements, then rotated through a roomful of 130 people answering questions about their plans for the district. From left: Corletta Vaughn, Shannon Smith, Natalya Henderson, Hunter-Harvill.

The low scores are the reason the state’s third-grade reading law, which calls for students reading below grade level to be held back, will disproportionately affect Detroit. But at Table 1, Corley gleaned some hope from George’s answer to her question about the law. He said more attention should be paid to early literacy instruction: “We must start from the beginning in preschool and kindergarten.”

Corley shook her finger in approval: “That’s right.”

On the other side of the table, Viola Goolsby wanted to know how George would respond if the state attempted to close the district’s lowest-performing schools.

“I would be opposed to any school shutting down any school in any district…” George began.

Then the gong sounded. “That was quick,” George said, standing up.

The table had a five-minute break — with roughly 130 people in the room, there were more tables than the six candidates who attended — and then another candidate, Corletta Vaughn, slid into the seat reserved for candidates.

Lewis EL, a realtor who works in Detroit, read a question from the list provided by Chalkbeat and CitizenDetroit, the non-profit that hosted the event: “What are the pros and cons for the district in collaborating with charters and suburban school districts?”

Vaughn’s voice fell: “I firmly believe that the district alone is without resources. We just don’t have it. So I would like to see a collaboration.” She said other districts could help Detroit train its teachers: “I think we have to do a better job in terms of exposing our teachers to better development.”

“Are they not coming with that knowledge already?” Lula Gardfrey asked.

“But I think that we can support them more,” Vaughn replied. “Our students have mental health issues. They have economic issues. Just what the teacher learned in school isn’t going to be enough when that child arrives at 8 a.m. in the morning.”

detroiters
PHOTO: Koby Levin
Shirley Corley and Lula Gardfrey work on the questions they planned to put to candidates for Detroit school board.

When the gong sounded again, Nita Redmond felt torn. She believed Vaughn had good intentions but was suspicious of any collaboration with charter schools.

The rise of charter schools, which enroll about one-third of the city’s 100,000 students, “should have never happened,” she said. “It seems like it has lowered the regular schools.” When another candidate, Shannon Smith, joined the table, Corley got to hear a different take on her question about the third-grade reading law.

“We need to communicate with parents,” Smith said. “There are a lot of parents that aren’t aware. Second, we need to work together with the administrators and the teachers on the curriculum, and figure out which curriculum would best support the students in reading.”

On the opposite side of the hall, another table asked Deborah Hunter-Harvill, the only incumbent in the race, about her plans for improving instruction in the district.

“Because nationally we’re at the bottom in reading and math, I start from the bottom,” she said. One of our policies is that parents attend parent training free to understand what their kids are being taught. All of our parents don’t come, but if you just get 40 in one classroom in one day, they go home and tell other parents.”

Theresa White had a seat right next to Hunter-Harvill, and she liked what she saw. “That has been a culprit, the lack of participation by parents,” she said.

In the next seat over, Rainelle Burton, who attended high school in Detroit and has lived in the city for decades, came to a different conclusion.

“I’m not hearing anything that says, ‘this is inventive and creative,’” she said.

The up-close-and-personal format didn’t make things easy for the candidates.

“It was definitely not comfortable,” Vaughn said, adding that she wished she’d had access to the pre-written questions beforehand.

reverend david murray
PHOTO: Erin Einhorn
Reverend David Murray, who served on the school board member for 16 years during a period when the district was largely controlled by emergency managers, said those managers were responsible for the district’s decline.

But for voters in the room, the format made things easy. In a straw poll after the event, virtually everyone in attendance said they planned to vote.

“We were able to talk to them one-on-one, it’s not just looking on TV,” Nita Redmond said, adding that she came away with a good idea of who would get her vote (she declined to say who). “We were able to talk to them and evaluate ourselves if this would be the best person to lead my district.”

Surveying the room as the forum wound down, Michelle Broughton was of two minds. She carries with her four generations of experience with the district — she is a computer instructor at Renaissance High School, her father graduated from Chatsey High School, a Detroit Public School, in 1961, her children attended the district, and her grandson is in the eighth grade at McKinsey Elementary — and she said she’d heard a lot of what she called “pie-in-the-sky” ideas at the forum.

No one had offered a solution for the roughly 90 classrooms in the district that were without a teacher on the first day of school — a problem that had affected her family in the past.

“If my child goes to school every day and comes home and says, ‘Grandma, I don’t have a math teacher,’ that child is losing weeks,” she said.

But she said the event gave her a feel for the candidates — and reminded her how many Detroiters share her dream of a thriving school district.

“I’m here because I have hope,” she said. “I see a brighter future, and I hope that I pick somebody who will help.”

Future of Schools

Here’s how new federal rules could impact Indiana’s $14M private school tax credit scholarship program

PHOTO: Dylan Peers McCoy
Students at the Oaks Academy in Indianapolis, a private school, play during music practice. The Oaks accepts tax credit scholarships.

Some school choice advocates are uneasy that new federal tax rules could be detrimental to Indiana’s $14 million tax credit scholarship program.

In August, the U.S. Department of the Treasury released rules clarifying new tax law that limited how much state and local taxes an individuals could deduct from their federal taxes. Some fear the changes might discourage donors from contributing to charities like the state’s tax credit scholarship program, in which individuals and businesses can give money to fund students’ private school tuition in exchange for a tax credit from the state.

“Our primary concern is to make sure that the families who are relying on these scholarships, that they can continue to do so,” said Leslie Hiner, vice president of legal affairs for EdChoice, a national school choice advocacy organization based in Indianapolis. “There are a lot of unknowns.”

Jerry Stayton, superintendent of Elkhart Christian School, submitted a public comment about the regulations saying the scholarships are vital to helping private schools stay afloat and give opportunities to low-income families. The tax incentives have “encouraged giving to schools on a scale never before seen.”

“For the federal government to impose a tax on a state tax credit represents a strange and dangerous precedent,” Stayton wrote. “While the federal government is supreme in the United States, its strength is derived from strong, growing, supportive states with great local economies and excellent education.”

There’s optimism, though, that the regulations’ impact could be far more limited in Indiana than in other states,  given how established its scholarship program is, how low income taxes are here, and how many donors are individuals making smaller contributions.

“So far, Indiana is in a better position, I’d say, than some of the high-tax states,” Hiner said. “Nonetheless, that uncertainty is the thing … I have a lot of faith that people in Indiana, and I’m hoping, that any impact in Indiana because of its long history of charitable giving will not be great.”

Below, we break down how this news could impact Indiana’s school choice programs, as well as how the program works and got its start.

First, what are tax credit scholarships?

Indiana’s tax credit scholarship program, which lawmakers passed in 2009, lets taxpayers donate money to nonprofit, state-approved “scholarship granting organizations” in exchange for a 50 percent credit on their state taxes.

Those donations are then distributed to the nonprofits and given out to income-eligible Hoosier families as private school tuition scholarships. To participate, a family of four can’t make more than $92,870 per year.

In 2018-19, the program could distribute as much as $14 million in tax credits, though the amount that can be donated has no cap. Indiana’s tax credit cap has steadily increased up from $2.5 million since 2009.

While the use of vouchers far outstrips the tax credit scholarships, the program is still sizable. It serves 348 private schools across the state. In 2017, the program awarded 9,349 scholarships totaling more than $16 million.

The National Conference of State Legislatures reports that as of 2017, 17 states had tax credit scholarship programs. The largest one in the country is in Florida, where many corporations participate and the program collects and doles out hundreds of millions of dollars each year.

Is the program controversial?

Yes, though it gets far less attention than Indiana’s voucher program, where families use state tax dollars to pay for private school tuition. It also predates vouchers, which weren’t allowed in the state until 2011.

Tax credit scholarship supporters say the donations benefit students in need who otherwise could attend the school of their choice. They also argue the programs can results in savings for states, as the cost for the tax credits is lower than the cost to educate students in public schools.

Critics of the program say it’s just another version of state-subsidized private school, not unlike vouchers. They also point out it is unclear whether these programs allow states to save money — partially because data on where students go to school and how they transfer between public and private schools can be hard to track.

In Indiana, students do not need to have attended a public school before receiving a tax credit scholarship, and the scholarships can pay up to the full tuition amount at their desired school.

What’s the IRS rule change that is causing the concerns?

It comes in response to a part of the 2017 federal tax bill that limited how much state and local taxes someone could deduct from their federal taxes — up to $10,000. Hiner said federal officials proposed the change to allow the government to get more revenue. Giving fewer opportunities for deductions means the government collects more in tax dollars.

In order to get around the $10,000 cap, some high-tax states, such as New York, California, and New Jersey, took advantage of tax credit programs. As a result, the IRS proposed new rules that prohibit the tax credit workaround, and that’s what has school choice supporters up in arms.

“The IRS had a good reason for taking action, but unfortunately in taking action against those bad actors, they swept in thousands of nonprofits across the country,” Hiner said.

How will the rule change affect Indiana?

Advocates hope is that Indiana won’t take as big a hit as other states with higher taxes.

In a press release, the treasury department said most taxpayers will not be affected by the change, with about 1 percent of taxpayers seeing “an effect on tax benefits for donations to school choice tax credit programs.”

It’s really not clear yet if that will come to pass, Hiner said, because taxes won’t be filed until next year. No one can really say now how donors might change their behavior.

The state-approved nonprofit “scholarship granting organizations” that manage private tuition scholarship funds are already fielding questions from donors. Indiana has seven such organizations, six of which are currently granting scholarships.

“The one thing we’re stressing with everyone is to always contact your accountant, financial advisor, or tax preparer to walk through what the impacts could be,” said Betsy Wiley, executive director of the Institute for Quality Education, one of the state’s scholarship granting organizations.

But in Indiana, according to an analysis from CNBC, taxpayers on average don’t claim deductions over $10,000. While the rule change could impact corporations or very large individual donors, most Hoosiers don’t fall in those categories. The vast majority of donors are individuals, and 43 percent of those donations are for less than $1,000, Wiley said.

Wiley hopes the federal government decides to pause implementing these new rules until after taxes for 2018 are filed. This would give donors and nonprofits more time to understand what the effect might be so they can adjust at the state level.

Federal officials are collecting feedback through November, when there will be another hearing on the rules.